2018

Burden of Metastatic Castrate Naive Prostate Cancer Patients, to Identify Men More Likely to Benefit from Early Docetaxel: Further Analyses of CHAARTED and GETUG-AFU15 Studies.

Authors : Gravis G, Boher JM, Chen YH, Liu G, Fizazi K, Carducci MA, Oudard S, Joly F, Jarrard DM, Soulie M, Eisenberger MJ, Habibian M, Dreicer R, Garcia JA, Hussain MHM, Kohli M, Vogelzang NJ, Picus J, DiPaola R, Sweeney C.

Eur Urol. 2018 Jun;73(6):847-855. doi: 10.1016/j.eururo.2018.02.001. Epub 2018 Feb 21.

Experts group or program : Groupe d’étude des tumeurs urogénitales (GETUG)

BACKGROUND:

Docetaxel (D) at the time of starting androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) for metastatic castrate naive prostate cancershows a clear survival benefit for patients with high-volume (HV) disease. It is unclear whether patients with low-volume (LV) disease benefitfrom early D.

OBJECTIVE:

To define the overall survival (OS) of aggregate data of patient subgroups from the CHAARTED and GETUG-AFU15 studies, defined by metastatic burden (HV and LV) and time of metastasis occurrence (at diagnosis or after prior local treatment [PRLT]).

DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS:

Data were accessed from two independent phase III trials of ADT alone or ADT+D-GETUG-AFU15(N=385) and CHAARTED (N=790), with median follow-ups for survivors of 83.2 and 48.2 mo, respectively. The definition of HV and LV disease was harmonized.

OUTCOME MEASUREMENTS AND STATISTICAL ANALYSIS:

The primary end point was OS.

RESULTS AND LIMITATIONS:

Meta-analysis results of the aggregate data showed significant heterogeneity in ADT+D versus ADT effect sizes between HV and LV subgroups (p=0.017), and failed to detect heterogeneity in ADT+D versus ADT effect sizes between upfront and PRLT subgroups (p=0.4). Adding D in patients with HV disease has a consistent effect in improving median OS (HV-ADT: 34.4 and 35.1 mo, HV-ADT+D: 51.2 and 39.8 mo in CHAARTED and GETUG-AFU15, respectively; pooled average hazard ratio or HR (95% confidence interval [CI]) 0.68 ([95% CI 0.56; 0.82], p<0.001). Patients with LV disease showed much longer OS, without evidence that D improved OS (LV-ADT: not reached [NR] and 83.4; LV-ADT+D: 63.5 and NR in CHAARTED and GETUG-AFU15, respectively; pooled HR (95% CI) 1.03 (95% CI 0.77; 1.38). Aggregate data showed no evidence of heterogeneity of early D in LV and HV subgroups irrespective of whether patients had PRLT or not. Post hoc subgroup analysis was based on aggregated data from two independent phase III randomized trials.

CONCLUSIONS:

There was no apparent survival benefit in the CHAARTED and GETUG-AFU15 studies with D for LV. Across both studies, early D showed consistent effect and improved OS in HV patients.

PATIENT SUMMARY:

Patients with a higher burden of metastatic prostate cancer starting androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) have a poorer prognosis and are more likely to benefit from early docetaxel. Low-volume patients have longer overall survival with ADT alone, and the toxicity of docetaxel may outweigh its benefits.

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